The vegetation in the park is similar to that found in mountain habitats such as those in the Blue Ridge Mountains. More than 70 families of vascular plants grow on and around Pilot Mountain. In late spring, the Big Pinnacle is ringed with the bright pink blooms of Catawba rhododendron. Also abundant is mountain laurel, distinguished by its leathery evergreen leaves and showy clusters of white flowers. Typical trees include the chestnut oak, table mountain pine and pitch pine. Wild blueberry, huckleberry and grape can be spotted along the trails.
Listen as American toads, chorus frogs and spring peepers call from nearby pools. Numerous songbirds including the eastern bluebird, Carolina wren, brown thrasher and various warblers supply the woods with music. Watch for ravens soaring above Big Pinnacle. The raven and the pileated woodpecker are two of the rarer birds of Pilot Mountain. Other wildlife in the park includes red and gray fox, white-tailed deer, woodchuck, opossum, gray squirrel, raccoon, and several species of reptiles and amphibians.